A Review of The Risk Factors For Diabetic Foot Ulceration

Anwar Noori Mahmood; Muqdad Fuad Abdulkareem; Anwar Thamer Adday

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 1-8

Background: The incidence of ulceration of foot in diabetic patients ranges from 4-13%. The financial burden is also very high. The cost of treating a single foot ulcer in the United States approach 28000$ over a period of two years. The main risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers include sensory neuropathy, lower limb ischemia, and trauma. However, these risk factors are to some degree preventable.
Objective: To know the risk factors for the development of diabetic foot ulcers.
Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study done in Baquba teaching hospital over a period of one year (August 2016 – August 2017). One hundred patients complaining from diabetic foot ulcer (with or without infection and/or gangrene) admitted to Baquba teaching hospital. A forma containing a list of risk factors, both local and general made for each patient and the risk factors documented. The forma used in the study mention the name of the patient, gender, age, and the local and general risk factors for the development of the diabetic foot ulcer. The percentage of occurrence of each of the risk factors calculated. Such risk factors include are local risk factors as, peripheral sensory neuropathy, vascular insufficiency, history foot ulcer/amputation, limited joint mobility, presence of callus, structural foot deformity, trauma and improperly fitted shoes. General risk factors include as impaired vision, poor glycemic control, peripheral vascular disease, renal impairment, and older age. Ages older than sixty years is considered as older age group.
Results: The study revealed that the main two factors are peripheral sensory neuropathy (94%) and poor glycemic control (78%). These are followed by three common risk factors which are history of foot ulcer/amputation (66%), impaired vision (60%), and older age (57%). Other risk factors in order of frequency of occurrence are trauma and improperly fitted shoes (56%), prolonged elevated pressure (50%), presence of callus (36%), structural foot deformity (24%), vascular insufficiency (20%), and renal impairment (11%).
Conclusion: Most of the risk factors are preventable by good glycemic control and awaring the patient of these factors to avoid lower limb amputation. Therefore early identification of risk factors for the development of ulceration of diabetic foot and initiation of appropriate treatment decrease the occurrence of complications, including the need for amputation. Also, knowing the risk factors for foot ulceration in diabetic patient is of utmost importance for early and better treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. There is an evolved need to educate and make awareness of diabetes and its associated complications, especially among populations living in the rural areas.

The Cytotoxic Activity Chara elegans on Growth of same Cell Lines

Ibrahim Hade Mohammed; Anfal Kadhim Abed; Qutaiba Hafedth Nsaif; Zena Taha Abud hafez

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 9-16

Background:Cellular and molecular studies have shown algae derived ingredients to be potent naturally occurring anticancer compounds and have been suggested to prevent carcinogenesis.Fucoxanthin is a marine carotenoid found in green algae and is documented to display remarkable anticancer activity. Fucoxanthin suppressed the growth of LNCap prostate cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner along with the induction G(1) cell cycle arrest, but not apoptosis.
Objective: In accordance with same concept, diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC), isolated from the brown algae Ishige okamurae, notably reduced the level of radiation-induced intracellular ROS and protected cells from undergoing cell death in cultured Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells.
Patients and Methods: Used leaf extraction from alge chara elegans aqueous extract and crude alcohol. Two types of cell lines, Hela cell line cervical cancer and normal cell embryo rat cell line REF(, were used in this study. They were obtained kindly from Iraqi Center for cancer and medical genetic research (ICCMGR) .The cell line were grown on uncoated coverslips in a Dulbecco’s Minimal Essential Medium (DMEM) with 10 fetal bovine serum (PAA), 2 µM glutamine (PAA), 100 µ/ml penicillin, and 100 μg/ml streptomycin. Results: The results showed this alge contains most of the chemical compounds such as Alkaloids, Saponins, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Steroids and Terpenes.The cytotoxicity of the aqueous extract and crude alcohol extract was investigated on the cancer cells line, hela and normal cell line Ref. Toxic effect for both extracts was indicated by rate of proliferation inhibition . The alcohol extract showed the inhibition of Hela cell line at percentage 20.35%-72.66% more than the aqueous extract (18.68%-48.26%) at concentrations: 62.5-2000 µg/ml. Both extracts (alcoholic extract and aqueous extract) showed almost the same effect at the concentration 8000µg/ml. At low concentrations of both extracts no inhibition effect was observed on normal cells line Ref. The alcohol extract showed the inhibition of Ref cell line at percentage 67.61% more than the aqueous extract (66.66%) at concentrations 8000µg/ml. Conclusion: The conclusion was made that the C. elegans is a promising alge in treatment of cancer through its inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cells., the results demonstrated that extraction from leaf chara elegans aqueous extract and crude alcohol is inhibition Hela cell line cell, and lesser inhibition extend against Ref cell line

Role of Innate Immune Response Components in the Osteoarthritis

Eman Amer; Ammar N Abood; Walaa Najm Abood; Abass Abood Frahan

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 17-26

Background:Osteoarthritis is a progressive joint disease is mainly worrying on weight bearing in the body, the joints, particularly the knee and hips. Osteoarthritis as an inflammation in the joints must there is an immune defense in the body against this inflammation. This disease that appears primarily in the elderly characterized by erosion articular cartilage, osteophyte, subchondral bone stiffness, synovitis inflammation, many causes of the disease such as age, sex, and obesity, the location of the joint injury and various other factors.
Objective:To understand the role of innate immune response components in the osteoarthritis, this study was investigated the relation between the innate immune response and osteoarthritis.
Patients and Methods:Fifty osteoarthritis patients and fifty healthy persons were participate in this case-control study. The total WBC count, neutrophil percent, lymphocyte percent, monocyte percent, eosinophil percent, basophile percent, platelet number, level of ESR, Level of CRP, and level of C3 complement were investigate in serum and synovial fluid in the osteoarthritis patients and control healthy persons.
Results: The results were shown significant elevation in the WBC count, platelet number, level of ESR, level of CRP and level of C3 complement in the serum of osteoarthritis patients compared with control group. A significant positive correlation was shown with weight of patient and the severity of osteoarthritis. The elevation level of C3 complement in the synovial fluid was a significant positive correlation with elevation of level of C3, level of ESR, level of CRP, and WBC count in the serum of patients related to the severity of osteoarthritis status.
Conclusion:The results were given an evidence for the crucial role of innate immune response in the defense against osteoarthritis inflammation and any defect in the innate immune component lead to increase the severity of osteoarthritis.

Detection of nosocomial toxigenic Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea in children by conventional PCR

Hala S Arif; Jabbar Salman Hassan; Thana R Abdul Rhman; Wurood J Hassan

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 27-37

Background: Clostridium difficile is a gram positive anaerobic spore forming bacteria. C. difficile–associated disease is a critical clinical issue that is accepted to happen mainly after hospitalization and used of expansive range anti-infection agents.
Objective:To define the rate of C. difficile infections isolated from children patients suffering from diarrhea, detection profile toxigenicity of C. difficile strains for toxin A and toxin B by using of PCR, and revise different risk factors of C. difficile infections.
Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 50 patients who hospitalized for at least 2 days before the appearance of three or more unformed or liquid stools for 24h, genomic DNA was extracted by using 10% fecal supernatant and a ready kit was used for extraction according to manufacturer instructions. Molecular detection of toxigenic C. difficile done by using the specific primer sequences in polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Current study showed diarrhea was the most prominent complain among the study population accounting for 41(82%), of whom 39(78%) presented with watery diarrhea. 38(76%) patients had no fever. The most comorbid disease was inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with 7 (14%) patients. Forty-six (92%) cases had no history of hospitalization in the last 3 months versus only 8% had such history. PCR revealed that 16 (32%) samples were positive for tcdB gene, while all samples were negative for genes tcdA.
Conclusion: The study showed a relationship between previously diagnosed patients with IBD and exacerbations with C. difficile infections (CDIs). Clinically the toxin B alone elicits severe enterotoxic effects which increase rate of (CDIs).

Identification of Staphylococcus aureus that Isolated from Cosmetics Products and Detection resistant Genes by used Specialized molecular Markers

Anfall Mohammed Juma; Talfan Anad Ahmed; Ammar Ahmed Sultan; Abbas Abod Farhan

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 38-45

Background:Cosmetics as well as (Make-up) are used to enhance the appearance or odor of the body and many cosmetics are designed to be placed on the face or hair. Cosmetics is an essential substance of growth and development of many types of micro-organisms because they contain nutrients facilitate the growth of these organisms.
Objective: Identification of Staphylococcus aureus by used 16srRNA gene and detection of virulence genes etb , mec A.
Patients and Methods: This study includes 100 samples of cosmetic products which are the Compact powder , Foundation , Lipstick and Mascara . Isolated Staphylococcus aureus , identification it and detection of resistant genes by used Polymerase Chain Reaction technique.
Results: 35 isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus . 4 isolates were identified genetical by 16srRNA gene and 3 isolates detection of resistant genes mecA, etb by used Polymerase Chain Reaction technique. The results of the genetic identification of the 16srRNA using (PCR) , revealed that all S.aureus isolates which were 4 were positive and the results of resistant genes mec A and etb revealed that all S.aureus isolates which were 3 isolates were containing mec A gene depending on the appearance of band asize of(300 base pair) in the agarose gel and all S.aureus isolates were not containing etb gene .
Conclusion: It was observed that all S. aureus isolates were resistant for methicillin and that all S.aureus isolates have not Endothelin receptor Type B .

Study of anemia types in the blood parameters among children of Baqubah city

Amjad Adham Ahmed; Hameed Mahmood Majeed

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 46-54

Background: Anemia is the most common condition in blood diseases, is caused by a decrease in hemoglobin concentration on normal level .
Objective:To the increased prevalence of anemia among children and women and The Purpose of recognize the types of anemia among children in Ba'qubah and How to diagnose and reduce the prevalence of anemia among children.
Patients and Methods: This study was conducted in the Al-Batoul pediatric Hospital of Diyala Health Department for the duration of the first of October and ends on the 31st of December of the year 2016 , which collect 383 ( 212 male 55% , 171 female 45% ) blood samples of children sick Anemic ( Hemoglobin levels less than 11.0 g/DL) with age range between 1-15 years , with 2.5 cm 3 venous blood into a tube containing (EDTA) Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid for blood picture, adopting the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in classification anemia MCV < 80 fl , MCV = 80-100 fl , MCV > 100 fl, as a bloody tinge to help with microscopy .
Results: The results of the current study showed that most anemic patients samples was of mean corpuscular volume for less 80fl, represented by iron deficiency anemia by 45.69% and Thalassemia by 38.12% . While the mean corpuscular volume range between MCV = 80-100 fl ratio 13.05% spread on the sickle by 4.96% and Spherocytosis anemia by 8.09 %, while the mean corpuscular volume for more than 100 fl at ratio low 3.13% and represented by vitamin B12 anemia, which showed the latter strongest decrease in numbers of red blood cells and hemoglobin level, And this decrease in numbers of red blood cells and hemoglobin level was strongest in the Thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, compared by iron deficiency anemia, and Spherocytosis anemia , while decrease mean corpuscular hemoglobin in iron deficiency anemia and Thalassemia and increase in Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. As the study indicated that the numbers of white blood cells exceeded the normal in patients with Thalassemia and vitamin B12 deficiency anemia .
Conclusion:The present study concludes that there is strongest decrease in numbers of red blood cells and hemoglobin in patients with hemolytic anemia and lack vitamin B12 with very high numbers of white blood cells.

Evaluation of Interleukin 6 and high sensitive C-reactive protein in relation with Body Mass Index

Zaid Nabeel Elia; Nisreen Waleed Mustafa

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 55-62

Background:Obesity is one of the largest public health problem worldwide. It is a multi-factorial chronic disease that increases mortality and the prevalence of heart-related diseases. Adipose tissue secretes large numbers of peptides that resemble cytokines. Interleukin 6 )IL-6( is one of those peptides that are released by adipose tissue. One of the major function of IL-6 is sending signal to liver to secrete C-reactive protein (CRP).
Objective:To study the relationship between obesity and inflammation by: estimation of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and IL-6 concentrations in participants sera in relation with different body mass indices (BMI).
Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed through the period of 3 months and 90 participants with the average range of age 25-40 years old were included, they were categorized into three groups ( 30 with BMI less than 25, 30 with BMI ranged between 25-29.9 and 30 with BMI more than 30).
Results:The concentrations mean of hsCRP was significantly elevated among the three studied groups as a result of BMI increasing (0.945 mg/L, 1.694mg/L and 2.521mg/L respectively). There was a significant increasing in the mean of IL-6 in relation with increased BMI in all included groups (1.084mg/L, 1.802mg/L and 3.531 mg/L respectively). Linear correlation between the concentrations means of hsCRP and IL-6 were found in all studied groups.
Conclusion:This study demonstrated a significant relationship between obesity and inflammatory marker (IL6 and hsCRP) .

Effect of extraction Alkaloids from Zephyranthes candida induces cell death through destruction microtubules in (China hamster cell line)

IsraaTareqAakool AL-Zerkani

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 63-74

Background: In eukaryotic cells the cytoskeleton network consists of three major structural elements, microtubules, microfilament,and intermediate filaments. Tubulin is the basic protein of the MTs, molecules of tubulin arranged in dimmers consisting of two forms, α- tubulin and β-tubulin. They are continuously changeable structures.Taxanes and vinca alkaloids are inhibitors MTC that destabilize microtubules, there by suppressing their dynamics which required for proper mitotic function and effectively blocking cell regulation progression resulting in cell death.
Objective: To evaluate the capability of alkaloids taken away from leaves of Zephyranthes candidato divert the MTC network of (CHO), which is an aggressive metastasis cell line. Patients and Methods: In our experiments we used the mouse CHO cell line. This cell line was obtained from the Department of Biology,Faculty of Medicine, Wuhan University, China. The cells were grown in Dulbecco’s Minimal Essential Medium (DMEM) (PAA Laboratories GmbH, Linz, Austria), supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mM glutamine, 100 Uml–1 penicillin, and 100 μg ml–1 streptomycin (PAA Laboratories, Austria) in a humidified atmosphere of 95 % air and 5 % CO2 at 37 °C.Zephyranthes candida crude alkaloid extract treated cells were cultivated over microscopic cover slips, washed three Times for 4 min with PBS (pH 6.9) and fixed by 3% paraformaldehydein PBS. The ability of alkaloid extract to inhibit CHO tumor cells growth in vivo was assessed; forty mice were injected subcutaneouslyin the right dorsal with this tumor cells, after the tumor developed to 8-1 mm2, and eliminating the animalsthat did not develop tumors, the animals were divided to three groups each one with ten individuals.
Results: The extractor was capable of divert the MTC of the cells below realization after 1hr of in sinuation in a focus as little as possible 20 μg/ml. while DAPI staining used, the cells death was not check in this focus and time. The cell death have been spotted when the focus of the alkaloid reproducer raised up to 80 and 100 μg/ml through the aforesaid exposure time. The cells were able to improving there native MTC contraction after 12 hr of the alkaloid deletion. The excerpt focus of 1mg/Kg/Bw competently prevent CHO cell line cancer development in vivo to 97.14% after 3 weeks therapy contrast to natural control.
Conclusion: The invasive species H22 cells offer changesin the preparation of their MTC at a focus of Zephyranthes candida leaf alkaloids excerpt as low as 20 μg/ml focus after 1hr of exposuretime.

Role of Caspase -3 and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) in Idiopathic Infertile Male

Madha Mohammed Sheet Saleh; Estabraq Abdulrasool Al -Wasiti; Adnan Nafil Muslim

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 75-85

Sperm differentiation during spermatogenesis is highly regulated by different caspases and oxidant-antioxidant mechanisms.
Objective: To assess the levels of the caspase -3 and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in seminal plasma and evaluate its role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic infertile male in comparison with healthy individuals.
Patients and Methods: Seminal fluids were collected from seventy males with idiopathic infertility and twenty male with proven fertility and were analyzed for the level of caspase -3 and TAC in seminal fluid and their correlation with seminal fluid quality parameters.
Results: The results revealed that men with idiopathic infertility have significantly higher level of caspase-3 activity. Seminal TAC levels were significantly lower in those with idiopathic infertility compared with fertile men. A negative correlation was noticed between sperm quality parameters and TAC levels in idiopathic infertile men.
Conclusion: Increased apoptotic index and decreased TAC activity are two important markers in idiopathic male infertility.

Isolation and Purification of metalloprotease produced by Aeromonas hydrophila

Muhannad Moeen Abdallah; Tahreer Hadi Saleh

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 86-92

Background: The bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from clinical specimens responsible of causing diarrhea in children and adults.
Objective:To purify metalloprotease enzyme produced by Aeromonas hydrophila.
Patients and Methods: This study involved 150 stool samples collected from patients suffering from diarrhea.
Results: Eight isolate of Aeromonas hydrophila was detected and metalloprotease was purified with 11.06 U/ml of enzyme activity.
Conclusion: The bacteria have ability to produce metalloprotease and enzyme was fully purified in three steps of purification.

Immunohistochemical Expression of Antioxidant Enzyme PRDX6 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Relation to Clinicopathological Parameters

Mustafa Gheni Taher; Wasan Hamdi Younis; and Muna Salih Merza

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 93-109

Background:The PRDX6 antioxidant family is important in the protection of cells against oxidants in humans. It is encoded by the PRDX6 gene. Peroxiredoxin 6 antioxidant enzyme (PRDX 6) has been reported in several cancers. However, the function of PRDX 6 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC),is far from being understood.
Objective:To normal corresponding oral mucosa in relation to clinicopathological parameters.
Patients and Methods: This study included 40 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of primary OSCC cases and fifteen normal oral mucosa samples. Demographic data, clinical staging and histopathological grading were obtained. Immunohistochemically staining anti PRDX 6 antibody was done to illustrate its subcellular localization in normal and malignant cells.
Results: Females were affected more than males and the tongue was the most common site involved. PRDX 6 expression was high in OSCC than normal (p=0.001) with mean±Sd (60±18.8) (23±9.8). Significant correlations were found with tumor size, lymph node and tumor stage (p=0.008, p=0.012, p=0.011 respectively) . Whereas no relation was observed concerning age, gender and tumor site.
Conclusion: Significant correlation of PRXD 6 anti oxidant enzyme expression with tumor size, lymph node involvement and clinical staging, suggesting its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma progression.

Evaluation Of the Immunopatho Role Of Interleukins IL17, IL21,and CD4+,CD8+ T cells In Patients With Type 1 Diabetes In The City of Baquba

Ban Shabib Mohsen; Abbas Abood Farhan; Mohammed Abdul-Daim Saleh

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 110-117

Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous group of high blood sugar hyperglycemia and produces insulin, insulin action , or both. Diabetes is caused by the inability of beta cells in the pancreas. The production of these insulin cells is little or no. This is known as type 1 mellitus diabetes (Insulin-dependent T1DM) Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Objective:To evaluate the immune role of some of the immunological indicators of patients with type 1 diabetes by identifying the IL17 and IL21 concentrations, also The CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were identified by the Sandwich ELISA test.
Patients and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 70 patients with type 1 diabetes (diabetes mellitus type 1) after diagnosis and 20 samples of healthy people were collected as a control group, an the study has been done during the period between October 2016 and May 2017.
Results: The results of IL17 level showed a decrease of IL17 in patients with type 1 diabetes 114.31 ± 103.78 pg / ml compared to control group126.54±81.48pg / ml with no statistically significant difference (p> 0.05),and the results of IL21 level showed an crease of IL-21 in patients with type 1 diabetes , 209.40 ± 294.78 pg / ml compared with healthy 189.54 ± 274.82 pg / ml with no significant difference.The results showed a decrease in the concentration of CD4 + T cells in the group of patients 5.18±4.59 pg / ml compared to the healthy group whose concentration level was 5.52 ± 3.47 pg / ml.Also the results showed a high concentration of CD8+toxic T cells in the group of patients as it was 5.54 ± 7.39 pg / ml compared to the healthy group. The concentration of toxic T cells was 3.74 ± 3.57 pg / ml. There was no significant difference between the study groups for CD4 + and CD8 +.
Conclusion: A number of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL17) and inflammatory cytokines (IL21) as well as cellular immunity of CD4+ and CD8+have an important role in the development of type 1 diabetes in children and affect the immune response in the body through immunodeficiency.

Index of Myocardial Performance risk assessment by Ultrasound Waves of patients with high blood pressure

Nada Abd alkarem; Mohamed Ubaid Hussein; Arshad Fouad Redha

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 118-126

Background: It is well known that hypertension results in cardiac overload. This overload is more profound on the left ventricle were systolic high pressure is present resulting in stiff LV.
Objective:To evaluate the index of myocardial performance and stiffness index in patient with hypertension.
Patients and Methods: This study enrolled 105 hypertensive patients and 60 control subjects .Patients with hypertension having an average BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg. From application of pulse wave echocardiography, the followings parameter are measured: Isovolumetric time of relaxation (IVRT), Isovolumetric time of contraction(IVCT) and time of Ejection (ET) to calculate Myocardial Performance Index (MPI).
Results: The results showed that in hypertensive patients the isovolumetric contraction and relaxation time were increased while the ejection time was decreased, so increasing the index of myocardial performance (IMP) obtained as an indicator for all age groups.
Conclusion: The myocardial performance index increases with increased hardness coefficient of the cardiac ventricular.

Identification of salmonella typhi by serological and molecular tests isolated from blood

Abbas Abod Farhan; Mohammed Shamkhi Jebur; Ruqia Ayad Abbas

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 127-137

Background:Salmonella Typhoid Diagnosis by Widal Test and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
Objective:To study the Isolation and diagnosis of Salmonella typhi,diagnosis of the use of the widal test , diagnosis of Salmonella typhi) using PCR technique and Detection of Salmonella typhi.
Patients and Methods:The study included the collection of 120 blood samples, with 59.16% (71) and female patients (40.83%), 49 years of age (60-1 years), 24.16% of patients in hospital and 75.83% Patients who are not in hospital.
Results:The samples were initially identified using the Widal test as a traditional method of diagnosis and the rate was 75 positive and 45 negative, 20 blood samples were isolated from the suspected disease with typhoid fever, and the diagnosis of bacterial isolates was 17 Widal test (85% (P> 0.01) The isolates studied under the Polymerase Chain Reaction were detected as carriers of the Flic gene and 16.7%. Based on the emergence of a 599 bp package, a base pair of Nasted PCR was the size of 360bp base pair in the gel A significant difference was found (P> 0.01).
Conclusion:Serological methods have been shown to be less effective in laboratory diagnosis to diagnose typhoid fever. The molecular diagnosis of PCR can be relied upon as a more accurate diagnosis of typhoid fever infection than the bacterial isolates that own a Flic gene.

Brain Tumors Classification by Using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix, Genetic Algorithm and Probabilistic Neural Network

Raghad Majeed Azawi; Dhahir Abdulhade Abdulah; Jamal Mustafa Abbas; Ibrahim Tareq Ibrahim

Diyala Journal of Medicine, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 138-151

Background:Brain tumors classification by MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is important in medical diagnosis because it provides information associated with anatomical structures as well as potential abnormal tissues necessary for treatment planning and patient's case follow-up. There are a number of techniques for medical image classification. In this paper brain tumors detection and classification system are developed into seven tumors types. The image processing techniques such as preprocessing by using a mean filter and feature extraction have been implemented for the detection of a brain tumor in the MRI images. In this paper, extraction of texture features using GLCM (Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix). We used Probabilistic Neural Network Algorithm (PNNA) for image classification technique based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) and K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) classifier for feature selection is proposed in this paper.
Objective: MRI brain tumors detection and classification system by using GA and PNN which able to diagnose different types of tumors in human brain.
Patients and Methods: Medical image techniques are used to imaging the internal structures of the human body for medical diagnosis. Image processing is an effective field of research in the medical field. MRI dataset, obtained from the Atlas Website of Harvard University.
Results: Brain Tumors are classified by using the genetic algorithm where the total number of features (20 features) has been reduced to 10 features as the strongest features in the classification.
Conclusion: MRI brain image is one of the best methods in brain tumor detection and classification, by observing only MRI images the specialists are unable to keep up with diagnosing. Hence, the computer-based diagnosis is necessary for the correct brain tumor classification.